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Bogumiła Choroszy, Edgar Beneš, Zenon Choroszy, Władysław Brejta
History of cattle breeding in Poland - Simmental cattle are derived from broad-browed alpine cattle (Frantosus) originating from Bos primigenius. Simmental cattle are native to the Swiss Simme River Valley, which lent its name to local spotted cattle. The advantages of the local cattle are evidenced by the fact that they were first exported from Switzerland to other countries in the 16th century. Simmental cattle came to the Podlasie area in Poland (among others, to the estate of Princess Jabłonowska) in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. By the end of the 19th century, they spread all over Poland, mainly in the Eastern borderlands. The principal Simmental breeding centres ran along the Wallachian trade route known as the beef route. During that time, Simmentals were dual-purpose cattle but were also used as draft animals. The milk of Simmental cattle, characterized by a high fat and protein content, was used to make cheese and salted butter, which was sold at the market. Milk was consumed mainly by the poor peasant population. Oxen were used in farming for traction power and then sold to local slaughterhouses or droved to slaughterhouses situated along the trade route. The first successes of Polish Simmental breeders took place during that time. In 1870, J. Wiktor exhibited his stock of Simmental cattle at the Breeding Show in Paris, and the next year his stock of Simmental cattle won a gold medal in Vienna. Cow milk yield books mentioned 9 milk-recorded Simmental herds in the Sanok district alone. In 1909, 10 herds were subjected to milk recording and the average yield was 2323 kg of milk and 75 kg of butter. In 1910, the highest yield of a Simmental cow recorded in the books was 7238 kg of milk and 253 kg of butter. The best herd of that time was owned by Dr S. Grodzki from Bzianka, with an average yield of over 4000 kg milk per lactation. The top performer was Lula, a cow with a yield of 6076 kg milk and 4.29% fat.
The Mountain Cattle Breeders Association was established in 1920 with 7 herds of Simmental cattle (i.e. about 747 cows and 51 bulls for service). Ultimately, the south-eastern region became the main centre of Simmental breeding in Poland.

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    dofinansowano  z funduszu

Co-financed from the Milk Promotion Fund
Co-financed from the Beef Promotion Fund